Kalki Avatar: An Historical Figure

KalkiKalki the 10th incarnation of Vishnu was an historical figure in the guise of Yasodharman. Puranas and poets describe Kalki event as already accomplished. Some Puranas use future tense in order to give the statements an eschatological character. Whatever it be ancient Indians would not write a mundane history within the limits of space and time; they would write only an eternal history presenting an eternal India writes G Suseelan, M. A (Mal), M.A (Philos), M.A (Hist), M.A (Socio), M.L.I.S, B.D and author of Malayalam Bible Dictionary and Malayalam Bible Concordance.


 

Kalki is still the hope and desire of millions who walk in the path of Dharma, to consummate this evil age of Kali with the protection of the good, the destruction of the wicked and establishment of the sacred law (Bhagavad Gita 4:8).

 

The widely accepted incarnations of Vishnu are ten in number: a fish, a tortoise, a boar, a man-lion, Vamana (dwarf), Rama (Parasurama), Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki. The Puranic tradition adopted Gautama Buddha into the Brahminic pantheon as Vishnu incarnate by the time of Kumarilabhatha which is roughly the 8th Century A.D. According to A. L. Basham (Basham, AL: The Wonder that was India, P.304), all the incarnations of Vishnu were incorporated by the 11th Century AD.

A work entitled Dharmapariksha by Amitagali, a Digambara Jain, which was completed in 1070 Vikramasamvat enumerated the aforesaid ten incarnations for critical treatment (Bhandarkar, R.G, Collected Works Vol 1, PP 301, 302). 

Of Dasavatara, it seems to be the first explicit reference on record. 1070 of Vikrama era corresponds to 1014 A.D. It leads us to the invariable conclusion that the concept of Dasavatara (10 incarnations) took definitive shape between the 8th and 11th century A.D.  Kalki is the last of the ten incarnations of Vishnu who will put an end to the present age of Kali and inaugurate the golden age of Krita. Our prime concern here is whether history speaks of Kalki as a fact or as an event (See footnote 1 for discussion on this).

In a derogatory manner, the Jaina Puranas speak of a King Kalki who ruled after Gupta Kings. The Hari Vamsa Purana of Jina Sena says that Kalki had ruled for 40 years and after him Ajitamjayan would rule in Indrapura as King (“Dvi Catvarimsa devatah Kalkirajasyarajata, Tato Ajitamjayo rajasyadindrapura Samstitah” Harivamsam 60:492).

Jina Sena writes in his Uttarapurana (76:395-398) that Kalkiraja was the father and predecessor of Ajitamjaya, that he was a great tyrant who oppressed the world and persecuted the Jaina Community of Nirgranthas and that he reigned for 40 years and he died at the age of 70.

Gunabhadra continues that the great tyrant Kalkiraja was born when 1000 years of Duhsamakala, commencing from the Nirvana of Mahavira, had elapsed. He is said to have been a paramount sovereign (mahimkrtsnam sa bhookshyali) the foremost wicked among all men (dwijanadimah), a perpetrator of sinful deeds (akramakarin) who oppressed the world (udvejitabhutalah). He was the greatest enemy of the Jain community of Nirgranthas who took their meal at noon once a day. If they could not take meal at noon, they would not eat, but wait till next noon for meal. Knowing this Kalkiraja erected an edict that the first lump of food offered to the Jaina community of the first lump of food offered to the Jaina community of Nirgranthas at noon everyday by pious people should be levided as tax.

Consequently, Nirgranthas were exposed to utter starvation. In order to save them from this cruel torture a demon appeared and killed the tyrant Kalki with a thunderbolt and sent him to the hell Retnaprabha, there to live countless ages enduring intolerable pain and agony (Uttarapuruana 76:410-12).

The records of history show that Kalki was to succeed the early Guptas, if he were an historical figure. The next rule after the Guptas belonged to the Huns. The time and deeds of Kalki fit to the Huna King Mihirakula. The great Indologists like K.B. Pathak avowedly acknowledge that Kalki was none other than Mihirakula (Pathak, K B” Commemorative Essays P 215, New Light on Gupta era and Mihirakula.).

The account of Hiune Tsang, who was on his travels a century after the death of Mihirakula, throws further light on this matter. He wrote: “at the time of his (Mihirakula’s) death there were thunder and hail and a thick darkness and the earth shook, and a mighty tempest rages. And the holy saints said this in pity: “for having killed countless victims and overthrown the Law of Buddha, he has now fallen into the lowest hell (maybe Retnaprabha as Gunabhadra said) where he shall pass endless ages of revolution.” Thus the tyrant met the just reward of his evil deeds in another world, if not in this (Smith V: Early history of India, 4th Ed, PP 337, 338).

Howbeit, Mihirakala, a Hun cannot be the Vishnu incarnate. The Hindu Puranic tradition and inscriptions give us another explanation.

As a prologue I shall quote a few scattered lines from ‘the Continent of Circle’. “On the contrary, the barbarians from the Central Asia came as conquerors… Their domination intolerably humiliated the proud Hindu order… The compound of fear, hatred, contempt and humiliation was embodied in the notion of Mlechacha, the unclean and uncivilized foreigner. The Hindus turned to their great preserving god Vishnu for savior and the idea of the tenth incarnation of the god was born. He was Kalki… It is quite possible that an actual Hindu King, Skandagupta or Yaso Dharman, both destroyers of abominable Huns was deified as the Kalki incarnation (Chaudhuri, Nirad C: The Continent of Circle, PP 56, 57). The description of Kalki in the Hindu Puranas cohere wi

th the mighty deeds of King  Yasodharman, who is an historical figure.

Was or Will be?

Contrary to the expectation of millions, some Puranas use past tense to describe the Kalki incarnation. The Vayupurana says; ‘Purne Kaliyuga abhavat’ (in the fullness of Kali age, Kalki was born). The Matsyapurana, Jayadeva (12th C A. D) and Chandidasa (a Bengali Poet) use preterit expressions to describe Kalki event. The Bhagavata Purana uses future expressions. But we should not lose sight of the fact that the Matsya and Vayu Puranas are anterior to the Bhagavata.

Kalki and Vishnuyasah

The Vishnu Purana says that Vishnu will be reborn as Kalki in the family of Vishnyasah, a devout Brahmin of Sambhal Village. Endowed with eight superhuman facilities (Ashtaisvarya Siddhi) he will destroy Mlechachhas (Vishnupurana 4:24. 98-100). According to the Vayupurana Kalki has another name Vishnuyasah (Kalkir Vishnuyasah namo parasarya pratapavan). It shows that Vishnuyasah is a synonym of Kalki and, by inference is not the name of his father as the Vishnupurana describes. This kind of displacement of names is not uncommon in the Puranas.

Vishnuyasah and Yasodharman

Yashodharman, (the ruler of Malwa A.D. 51—535, see the footnote 2) delivered the people from the tyranny of Mihirkula. Nothing else is known about either his ancestry or his successors. His name remains alone and unrelated. He is known from only three inscriptions. Two magniloquent inscriptions called the Ranastambhas or the columns of victory erected by Yasodharman help us to find out his identity with Vishnuyasah. The first mandas or inscription bears two names Yasodharman and Visnuvardhana in the title. Fleet treats them as two separate names (Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol 111 Plate No 53).

According to him Yasodharman and Vishnuvardhana were not identical; the latter was only a feudatory of the former. On the other hand D. C. Sircar strongly argues for the identity of both (Sircar, Dinesh Chandra: Select Inscriptions bearing on Indian History and Civilization Vol 1).The inscriptions do not permit even an iota of doubt in presenting Yasodharman as Vishnuvardhana.

The Vayupurana says that Kalki has another name Vishnyasah. Vishnuvardhana and Yasodharman must have been coined by compounding the titles of Vardhana and dharman with the names Vishnu and Yasah. On chronological basis I think that probability is on the side of accepting that the Vishnuyasah of the Puranas was coined by adding the first elements of the two names Vishnu/Vardhana and Yaso/dharma. This way of presentation is not alien to our Puranic tradition.

Mighty Deeds of Yasodharman and Kalki

In the Agnipurana (16:46) Kalki is a cavalier carrying bow and arrow. In Kalkipurana, he is mounted on a white horse with a flaming sword in his hand, set out to make war and conquer. He defeats the Jains, Buddhas and the Mlechachhas. Huns were the Mlechchhas to the Hindus. The Huns were defeated and brought to the feet of Yasodharman. Mandasor inscription describes “Yasodharman spurning the limits of his own Kingdom… conquered countries not enjoyed before even by the Guptas… and invaded lands which the chiefs of the Hunas could not penetrate”. Furthermore “Even that King Mihirakula paid him obeisance with complementary presents of the flowers from the lock of hair on the top of his head” (Mandasor Stone Pillar Inscription of Yasodharma Deva 4&6).

In short Kalki the 10th incarnation of Vishnu was an historical figure in the guise of Yasodharman. Puranas and poets describe Kalki event as already accomplished. Some Puranas use future tense in order to give the statements an eschatological character. Whatever it be ancient Indians would not write a mundane history within the limits of space and time; they would write only an eternal history presenting an eternal India. This tendency still persists. So as to get access to real history we have to apply principle of demythologization successfully.

 

Footnote:

  1. An historical fact needn’t be an historical event in the strict sense of the term. They are to be treated separately. Unfortunately historians seem to confuse them, which I think is one of the reasons of finding fault with the so accursed unhistorical attitude of Indians.
  2. The regnal year of Yasodharman is reproduced from the Viswavijinakosa (Vol 9, P761) the basis of which is uncertain.

{moscomment}  

 

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17 Responses

  1. Kalki Avtaar is No one but Muhammad SAW.As mentioned clearly in the vedas and puranas.The clear indications and signs of kalki avtaar can be tallied with the signs of Muhammad saw.You ppl are ignorant and dont mis lead the people.Say the truth if you are honest.

  2. Salman,

    Produce evidence like this scholar Suseelan has done. These days only Muslims believe in empty claims. Others need evidence.

  3. Mr Salman

    Do you have historical documents extraneous to vedas and puranas in support of your claim. If you are honest please produce one. If not you are trying to interpret the vedas and puranas in your own way so as to support your belief just as you muslims normally try to interpret the Holy Bible to support you belief.

    Christians have long demolished all your interpretations of the Bible as faulty and bogus. With respect to the Holy Bible at least you better shut up.

  4. salman may got to conclusion-believing muhamamd is avatar of kalki coz both vishnu and muhamamd where fond of women and war.have a nice day salman ,let us recite like this ,THERE IS NO GO OTHER THAN ALLAH AND MUHAMAMD IS AVATAR OF VISNHU!

  5. I would like to know about Kalki.

    How was the era of the coming of Kalki decided upon ?? Some historians believe “Kalki” Incarnation will be in the 4320th Century.

    How did they come to that conclusion, and what would be the corresponding period in the English Calandar ?

    Some Historians also believe that the re-incarnation of Kalki is imminent. How do they make their case ?

    Regards

    Satish Sabnani

  6. When do we expect coming of Bhagavan Kalki… an Avatar of present era… a messiah competent to uplift Dharma (righteousness)! In times of strife… when mutual trust amongst each other reaches its lowest ebb… coming of a messiah (Avatar) gets necessitated! Even man gods like Mahavira, Gautama Buddha, Jesus Christ or Prophet Mohammed fail in such circumstances!

    Who shall be Bhagavan Kalki is the biggest question! Coming of a man god coupled with powers of Chanakya (most able administrator in history of mankind) is only solution! Humanity looks forward to such a one… an ordinary mortal that against all odds upholds Dharma (righteousness) and succeeds in re-establishing peace tranquility abound!

  7. Dear Readers, Let us read, think ,accept & smile for ALMIGHTY GOD is ONE!

    Atherva Veda 13/4/20

    HE is sole Soverign

    OF the Universe.

    Rig Veda 6/36/4

    Thou are LORD of lords

    GOD has no image

    so no idol, no statue can be worshipped.

    Yajur Veda 32/3

    Rig Veda 1/94/13

    Therefore We have unity with Muslims Teaching of ONE ALMIGHTY GOD.

    There is no reincarnation

    as Hindu belief.Human being are increasing not cats & dogs are born for sins.It is baseless.

    If there was reincarnation,Arjun & vim & Ram would have returned .They were saints not GOD as propagated by fat Brahmins for fat money.

    Thus trinity of Christians:

    Can be ignored:

    ALMIGHTY GOD is ONE ALONE.

    HE Has no image.

    Jesus had image, so He is a Holy Prophet.

    NOW Kalki Avatar:

    Let us read the interpretation of Honest Hindu Scholars:

    Pundit Vedaprakash Upadhyay,

    Research Scholar of Alahabad University.

    And Ashit Kumar Bandhopaddhayaya who interpreted that the Kalki Avatar was none other than”

    HOLY PROPHET Mohammed”

    Also know others:

    The Brahma Samaj of India.

    Who worship no Idol, they Prostrate before one ALMIGHTY GOD.

    Why quarell than, learn the truth & accept the truth.

    Thank You

    Independent Thinkers.

    • Kalki Avatar is an avatar of Vishnu (one of the trinity of Vishnu). As you mentioned that, details were given only in ancient Hindu scriptures (but nowhere in Quran). Then your Muhammad definitely becomes a hindu Vaishnav (follower of Vishnu) and not a muslim.
      Thus ALL muslims are hindu Vaishnav, right?

  8. can you give me some of the physical attributes of kalki avatar. i heard he has a swastica on his hand… what else can you tell me? and no muhammad isn’t vishnu, your just trying to make yourself feel better by saying that. all religions in this world are derived from hinduism just to let you know. kalki is born a muslim and will come to his conciousness in 2012 and doesn’t stay a muslim .. muslims call him dajjal, just to let you know.. remember 2012 so that means muhammad isn’t vishnu. OK. sorry about that .. so please tell me some of his physical decriptions. bye

  9. Just because there was somebody by the name Krishna in 18th century, does he become Lord Krishna? Similarly, just because some King had the name Kalki, does he become the avatara?

    You can come up with several theories on who could have been Kalki, just as one can come up with theories on second coming based on failure of jesus etc.

    Blunder of the article:

    Mihirakula is a person who ruled around 510 CE. This implies Yashoadhavarman is also belongs to early 6th century CE.

    Vishnu Purana is dated around 300-500 CE (5th century CE at the worst) as the worst date. Wilson dates it to 100 CE.

    Clearly Vishnu Purana which mentions Kalki avatara, predates even the birth of Mihirakula by centuries or at the last decades.

    => the suggestion of article is dubious and amoounts to intellectual dishonesty.

  10. just think evry body. stated by you all is that muhammad is kalki then why he ha left earth without completing his work.you say that he iradicated idol workship then how it is prevaling today hadnt he got enough power to eradicate it. so stop discussing it get work. let people do what they are doing they will get their result why ae yo u all involvedin these arguments.

  11. i fully truz in lord vishnu that he is the creater and the distroyer……..he will reborn and destroy the evil and sins that occuring all around the world as kalki raja…..hari oom namaha

  12. Jai shree Kalki…jai maa vaishno… Kalki puran says Lord kalki will be a asur and take part in dev asur sangram…just like earlier devasur sangram for amrit…asurs will win as lord Kalki is on their side…asurs will be worshiped just like devs for next coming yugas…satyuga,dwapar,treta…will also take part in third world war to be fought between USA/Britain and East (India and allies)…puran also says Kalki will appear in year 2012…

  13. Dear Author,

    No one on this universe have any right to write in the website that ‘In short Kalki the 10th incarnation of Vishnu was an historical figure in the guise of Yasodharman’. You don’t know who was The Yasodharman. First author should know about him and then tell the differences between the two. In short author don’t have read Original versions of all PURAN AND VED.

    It seems, people have only intension to prove Hindu mythological books and believes absurd because selfish people have only intension to make Hindu Dharma Obsolete and establish another Dharma.

    Perhaps, selfish people have forgotten that Christian Religion also don’t teach people to change their Dharma. It is selfish people brain. Don’t you remember, one day you all will die and you all have to accept your deeds in front of Your Lord Jesus and then he will punish you all for such deeds. Because any kind of Dharma never teaches us to make people pained. If people get pained because of any Dharma then it does not worth to be called as Dharma. Some people don’t know the actual meaning of their own Dharma and explains what the another Dharma says. And for Kalki Awatar, you read all real and original books of Hindu mythologies before speaking such words against Hindu God/ Godess.

    Some selfish people just take advantage of our resilience. But it is not our weakness. It is the start of ending of all Sins in this world.

    Before speaking such words against Hindu, You should know what the Hinduism actually is and what your Lord Jesus has said in your original version of Holy Bible.

    Goodbye!!

    May God Bless You with good intension mind.

  14. Kalki is not dajjal. Kalki is not one eyed and doesn’t ride a donkey/mule. Kalki character is similar to Mahdi or antichrist, the horse rider.
    The satan character in bible and the dajjal character in quran is the same person, Koli in Kalkipurana.
    In Bible, Satan has alliance with Gog (China) and Magog (Russia). Both countries have communism (Veerabrahmam referred communism as Kali/Koli. He said Kali = communism will rule west bengal)
    In quran, dajjal will ride on a donkey or mule. In kalkipurana, Koli will ride on a donkey.

  15. The final and last avatar, The Kalki Avatar, Lord Kalki will appear at the end of this current Kali-Yuga or Dark Age which still has to go another 4,27,000 years as only 5000 years just have passed. Kalki and with the help of his four (4) brothers is to destroy and defeat evil forces on earth. He would begin this with the battle, and eventual massacre, of the Sunyavadis(Believers of no God), who have misled the people, at the city of Keekatpur. A war would later begin with the dark forces of Kali, including the demon generals Koka and Vikoka fighting against Kalki and the Devas. Koka and Vikoka would then be killed by Kalki. Thus, Kali(Kali-Yuga) will be defeated at the hands of Dharma, the personification of the Satya Yuga which is evil’s polar opposite. Finally, Kalki will be challenged by, and intentionally accept defeat from, Raja Shashidhwaja and marry the Raja’s daughter Lakshmi (Child of his second wife Rama and His eternal consort also) before the start of the Satya-Yuga again.

    Scripts Declares as:
    “Lord Kalki will appear in the home of the most eminent brahmana of Shambhala village, the great souls Vishnu Yasha and his wife, the pure of thought Sumati.” —Srimad-Bhagavatam Bhag.12.2.18.

    “The ascetic prince, Lord Kalki, the Lord of the Universe, will mount His swift white horse Devadatta and, sword in hand, travel over the earth exhibiting His eight mystic opulences and eight special qualities of Godhead. Displaying His unequaled effulgence and riding with great speed, He will kill the millions those thieves who have dared dress as kings.”—Bhagavata Purana, 12.2.19-20.

  16. So according to muslims Muhammad is 10th Incarnation of Hindu’s God. So in every religion even far away from its native origini has prophesied muslims god muhammad. Perfect. Didn’t muslims ashamed, rejecting Jesus as incarnation then shamelesly claimed that their prophet is a God’s incarnation from the holy books of others, so now muhammad spoke sanskrit too? While tp read and write in arabic he claimed he could not at all.

    Not to mention Kalki Avatar has divine nature, as incarnation of its God in the flesh. Aren’t muslims now claiming allah united himself in muhammad? Which is a grave sin in Islam to say so? Aw poor muhammedans….try harder friends! Maybe they can look into every religion on earth from ancient and nowadays and find in every script the prophecy about this poor muhammad since in his own Quran it seems claimed about him putting hin so badly common human.

    Is it not as well Quran is a bad plagiarism and syncretism of many legends, stealing apocrypal bible verses, rairy tales, fables, and arab mystics and superstitious, not to mention Zoroastrism stories? And claimed it is so beautiful and no one can copy or make any verse like in it? Sure who wants to make such a verse that is result of plagiarism? I believe in its original version is in better narative than muhammad’s iliterate comprehension.

    Hindu’s scripts are regarded as high literatures as far as i know, and beautifully narated. It is an insult to literature world to compare them with quran verses.

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